Recently, the literacy rate and contextual understanding of the younger generation are leading the talk of the town. As a hot topic, it can be seen that they do not know much about written vocabulary or use, not colloquial terms, such as mistaking “gum-ill” meaning today in Korean as “gum-yo-ill” meaning Friday in Korean or misunderstanding “Sa-hul” meaning three days in Korean as “Sa-ill” meaning four days in Korean. In fact, according to the "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 21st Century Reader: Developing Literacy in the Digital World” report released by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in May 2021, Korea’s 15-year-old students’ digital literacy is the lowest among OECD countries. As times progress, we can get information more easily and quickly and use high-quality information, so why is literacy rather decreasing for information that requires a high level of Korean language proficiency?
Increasing SNS and OTT utilization rates and dependence, is corelated with decreasing Korean literacy with serious cognitive abilities problems
Over-The-Top (OTT) service refers to an online video service that provides video content through the Internet without going through a set-top box. That is, unlike broadcasters, cable, and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), it is a service that transmits videos through the public internet network without going through a closed video distribution infrastructure. It is characterized by being available on various devices such as smartphones, tablets, and televisions, and the OTT market has emerged rapidly as the time spent staying at home increases due to COVID-19 and improvement of technology.
There are two main cognitive skills problems related to the use of SNS or OTT services by smartphones. First, attention reduction due to multitasking appears. We use smartphones and face multi-tasking in multiple situations that simultaneously process tasks. For example, SNS notification rings while working, or you can find a case in which a notification calling attention appears on a smartphone while processing things with a smartphone. At first glance, multi-tasking seems to allow us to do many things efficiently, but in fact, our brains are not designed to be multi-tasking capable. Multi-testing is just a rapid shift of attention from one job to another. According to researchers at Stanford University in the U.S., people who use smartphones and other multimedia together and multi-task a lot were unable to focus on one task and had difficulty switching between various tasks. Multi-tasking reduces neural signals for memory and reduces attention and memory.
In order to keep users on SNS for a long time, SNS continues to provide new content and call users' attention. When you use SNS, you may encounter advertisements that pop out from time to time, and to attract users' attention, you recommend posts that users will like as algorithms. These newly updated posts weaken moderation and force multitasking, thereby reducing the user's concentration and memory.
Second, the stimulating content of SNS and OTT on smartphones causes smartphone addiction, causing psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, and ADHD. Recently, Short Form, which stimulates users with short videos within a minute, has become popular on YouTube, Instagram, and TikTok, where more stimulating content can be easily accessed. It is to increase attention and views in a short time. However, short videos within one minute are usually composed of contextless content because they are produced mainly based on laughter. An environment in which images can be enjoyed without trying to understand the context can affect literacy. Kim Young-hoon, a professor of pediatrics and adolescents at the Catholic University of Korea Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, said, "There are also research reports that the risk of ADHD increases by 10% as you are exposed to digital media for more than an hour.” Professor Kim Young-hoon said, "If you have a habit of immersing in the short form, it is difficult to watch other videos even longer, so the time to watch short form contents increases. It can be more dangerous than other videos by attracting others to more stimulating videos and maintaining passive concentration.” Concentration used when studying is active concentration, while concentration in digital media is passive concentration. When we get used to passive concentration, our brains are tamed into reactive brains.
In the rapidly changing information age and hyperconnected age, we need to find solutions
To get distance from digital contents, try digital detox. Digital detox is a term that combines digital with detox, which means “to relieve poison.” By practicing digital detox, dependence on smart devices and addiction can be reduced. Easy ways to practice digital detox in real life including turning off notifications, organizing apps that you do not use, checking screen time, putting them out of sight for a certain period of time, setting and using purpose. It is also helpful to make a habit of not touching your cell phone even for an hour before going to bed. Usually, when using a cell phone, many people use it for no purpose. In this case, it is recommended to set the purpose and time of use, set the alarm at the end of the use time, and use the device for the set time.
The dramatic prescription of all connections such as disconnected or not at all connections, and it will be able to create the environment, and establishing the environment that can be established and solve themselves.
Lee Jun-ho firstname.lastname@example.org